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Academic articles about art and researches about art. Artistic researches to compiled to help understand what art is and to comprehend the function of art.

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The Art of Art History
Irving Lavin

“Art is a form of communica-tion linking experience and ex-pression in visual terms. What theartist says and the way it is saidare one and the same thing. Theart historian seeks not only to de-scribe the form, meaning and de-velopment of material culture, butalso to relate human artifacts tothe thoughts, feelings and conditionsthat produce them. The authorcompares art history to thedisciplines of art and science, of-fering five principles that definethe discipline as a ‘natural sci-ence of the spirit’.”

Balinese Art versus Global Art
Adrian Vickers

“There are two reasons why “Balinese art” is not a global art form, first because it became too closely subordinated to tourism between the 1950s and 1970s, and secondly because of confusion about how to classify “modern” and “traditional” Balinese art. The category of ‘modern’ art seems at first to be unproblematic, but looking at Balinese painting from the 1930s to the present day shows that divisions into ‘traditional’, ‘modern’ and ‘contemporary’ are anything but straightforward.”

The Art without Art
Filip Wroblewski

“This article is based on an analysis of the social field of the art and cultural category designed to described human taste of aestheticism and need to art creativity. The main idea of this paper is attempt of amendment existing applied notions to the description and analyses of art. To this purpose author is using the analogy between the iconoclash notion suggested by Bruno Latour, and proposed by oneself idea of the mediaclash. This phenomenon characterized by a clash of aesthetics and usage of formal means (especially digital technologies, which are the foundations of the very existence of new media). The second proposition is arthick category, used like Clifford Geertz thick description.”

Art Appreciation, Importance and Functions of Art
Mishal Nadeem

“This paper highlights the meaning of ‘Art Appreciation’, while analyzing its importance and the necessary functions it has. Art is something we do. Art is an expression of our thoughts, emotions, intuitions and desires but it is even more personal than that: it’s about sharing the way we experience the world. It is the communication of intimate concepts that cannot be faithfully portrayed by words alone. What is art? Art is an expression and application of one’s creativity, typically in the form of something visual. The definition of art is in the eyes of the beholder. Many dig far too deep intothe ambiguity of the definition of art itself that they forget to appreciate the significance of art intheir lives.”

Art Across Cultures & Art by Appropriation
Mark Lafrenz

“In this paper I argue that art exists across cultures and that artifacts that were not artworks in the contexts of their original creation can become artworks through acts of creative appropriation. I further argue that there are cases in which we should understand appropriators in cases of things becoming art by appropriation as themselves being artists. A correct concept or definition of art will be adequate insofar as it tracks the metaphysics of art in general. Such a concept or definition, even if there are details still be worked out, will allow us to acknowledge that non-art artifacts can become works of art by appropriation. Although this paper is not primarily about definitions of art, I have the following working definition of art in mind.”

Feminist Art Epistemologies: Understanding Feminist Art
Peg Brand

“Feminist art epistemologies (FAEs) greatly aid the understanding of feminist art, particularly when they serve to illuminate the hidden meanings of an artist’s intent. The success of parodic imagery produced by feminist artists (feminist visual parodies, FVPs) necessarily depends upon a viewer’s recognition of the original work of artcreated by a male artist and the realization of the parodist’s intent to ridicule andsatirize. As Brand shows in this essay, such recognition and realization constitutethe knowledge of a well-(in)formed FAE. Without it, misinterpretation is possibleand viewers fail to experience and enjoy a full and rewarding encounter with a provocative and subversive work of art.”

Science in Art – Art in Science
Daan Tweehuysen

“Up till and including the Renaissance, virtually no distinction was made between art andscience, as exemplified by that outstanding “uomo universalis”, artist and scholar in one : Leonardo da Vinci. In later times the domains of science and art became ever more separated,their practitioners ever more specialized. This gap will never be closed again; we may safelyassume that uomo universalis is an extinct species. Nowadays the corpus of scientific knowledgeand the scope of artistic practices are simply far too big for a single individual to comprehend. In(post)modern times however, driven by technology, research, and the drive for newness in thearts, certain artistic genres may grow closer to science. In theoretical and practical sense thedistinction appears, not to vanish, but to be bridged somehow.”

Useful Symbiosis: Science, Technology, Art and Art Education
Petra Sobanova

“Art and science and the interactive forces that often pull them together and at times ultimately separate them is the central theme of Useful Symbiosis: Science, Technology, Art & Art Education. While aiming to ignite a productive debate on the overlapping tendencies of arts and the exact natural sciences, the book also seeks to address the educational dimension of these intersections. In their quest to define the relationships between visual arts and sciences and their technical applications, the authors of the book, among whom are also art historians, artists, scientists and pedagogues, believed it beneficial to first analyse the concept of the scientific approach without any preconceptions, and to demonstrate its advantages and limitations.”

Contemporary Asian Art, Reframing Traditional Art

“East Asian cultures like Japan and Korea also have the power to influence and spread to various parts of Asia. Southeast Asia is dominated by Malay culture and become a region of crossing the various great cultures in Asia. The works produced by contemporary Asian artists mostly theme related to their localtraditions. Chinese artists such as using material calligraphy, Japanese artist developed a tradition of art prints of the Edo period, and Indonesian artists using images puppet prototype. Visual tradition that has developed in the territory of each culture is maintained and communicated with the “visual language” that related to the contemporaneity.”

From Swarm Art Toward Ecosystem Art
Vincent Gardeux

“Swarm intelligence deals with the study of collectively intelligent behavior that emerges from adecentralized system of non-intelligent individual agents. The concept is widely used in thefields of simulation, optimization or robotics, but less known in the domain of generative art. This paper presents the swarm paradigm in the context of artistic creation, and more particularly explores the interest of enhancing swarm models with dynamics inspired from natural ecosystems. We introduce an energy budget to the agents of a swarm system, and show how mapping the energy level to visual information such as line width or color, combined with mechanisms such as resource chasing and consumption, enriches the search space of possible images.”

Critique of Community Art Event, ‘Art Bender’
Freya Montefiore

“This paper will attempt to describe, analyse, interpret and evaluate the creative event, ‘Art Bender’. This will be done through close analysis of the content of this event, which is multidisciplinary and explores a varied range of themes, from current politics to the more intrinsic human condition. Art Bender is reflective of the kind of socially engaged art that contemporary artists use to explore these themes in a thought-provoking and meaningful way (The Lock-Up Contemporary Art Space 2015). Through this process of critiquing, the significance of socially engaged art as a broader concept will also be touched on. By scrutinising the aspects and meaning-making of a number of the different performance and creative pieces, this critique will endeavour to offer an interpretation of the artists’ message behind their works. By this sequence of critiques, an evaluation of the event as a whole can be made.”

Art in Education vs. The Art of Education
Nina Zivancevic

“I started this conference with an excerpt from Jean Luc Godard’s film La Chinoise which discusses, among other things the problem of chopping off the idea of culture from its formal aspect which is its movement or action, culture in movement, which directly also implies teaching of culture and its presentation to people, to the masses. In Godard’s film two characters have a short dialogue on a train; one of them, the male figure declares that he would like to enable people to see the world the way it really is; he would not only like to enable them to see the world as such, but he would also like to make them able to act and react in such a world, in other words, he would like to enable the masses to contribute to the building, enlarging and improving the better world, which is , in a nutshell, the purpose of any form of school education.”

Contextures About Art and Art Education, or- on Roamings in Art Teaching
Jociele Lampert

“This text presents contextures about visual culture pedagogical practice for aninitial formation in Visual Arts, specifically for the courses Supervised Curricular Internship, Visual Culture, Process and Introduction to Pictorial Language, towards the Licenciate Degree in Visual Arts at Santa Catarina State University, where I work as a tenured professor teaching courses for the Visual Artsgraduate and undergraduate degrees. Therefore, as I revise the text “Supervised Internship: promenading in the path of Visual Arts” (2005), many years of practiceas a higher education professor have gone by. In nine or ten years, there have been many phases in which I belived and disbelieved in the possibility of Artteaching; moments in which I tested my ideas in practice; moments in which Idoubted my ability as a professor and finally, moments in which I dove into the books and the search for the construction of my knowledge and my ownprofessor identity.”

The Liquidation of Art in Contemporary Art
Wolfram Bergande

“In this paper, the concept of liquidation (Verfluessigung) from the chapter on Self-consciousness in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit is reconstructed and then used to deconstruct the systematic transition from sculpture to painting in the passage on the “System of the individual arts” in G.W.F. Hegel’s ‘Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art’. The aim is to show that such a deconstructed version of Hegel’s art philosophy provides a valid conceptual framework for the analysis of modern, particularly postmodern and contemporary art, which results as liquid or liquidated art. Damien Hirst’s For the Love of God is discussed as major evidence for the concomitant neo-Hegelian claim that modern art has discursive reflection as its necessary supplement.”

Art History as A Theory of Art
Sharif Shukurov

“Cosponsored by the Department of the History of Art, University of Michigan, and theFreer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Ars Orientalis solicits scholarly manuscriptson the art and archaeology of Asia, including the ancient Near East and the Islamic world. Fostering a broad range of themes and approaches, articles of interest to scholars in diverse fields or disciplines are particularly sought, as are suggestions for occasional thematic issuesand reviews of important books in Western or Asian languages.”

Art, Archaeology, Art: Letting-Go Beyond
Doug Bailey

“In this text chapter, Professor Bailey investigates the articulations of art and archaeology. He argues that while recent influences of contemporary art have expanded archaeological interpretations of the past, more provocative and substantial work remains to be done. The most exciting current output is pushing hard against the boundaries of art as well as of archaeology. Bailey’s proposal is for archaeologists to take greater risks in their work, and to cut loose the restraints of their traditional subject boundaries and institutional expectations.”

What is ‘Huron Art’?: Native American Art and the New Art History
Ruth Phillips

“The “new art history” rejects two major assumptions of contemporary art history, a concept of linear evolution culminating with western European art, and the equation of artistic with cultural style. The author reviews Native arthistory practices in terms of the new art history, using several contemporary pieces as examples. She also examines past art history concepts in terms of Huron art. A fundamental rethinking of the assumptions of art history in recent years has had little effect so far on the study of small scale societies. Although these explorations have been carried out primarily with reference to European art, many of the new ideas have profound implications for workin non-western art.”

Art Style | Art & Culture International Magazine #1
Christiane Wagner

“The first edition of Art Style Magazine. This magazine is open to the public and contributes to the knowledge and information of arts and culture. In this inaugural edition, the arts are addressed in several essays; their varied contents consider sociopolitical dynamics and cultural diversity. Allvalues of cultures are shown in their varieties of art. Beyond the importance of the medium, form, and context in which arttakes its characteristics, we also consider the significance ofsocio-cultural and market influence. Thus, there are different forms of visual expression and perception through the media and environment. The images relate to the cultural changes and their time-space significance—the spirit of the time.”

Undoing Art
Michel Delville, Mary Caws

“What do Stéphane Mallarmé, Antonin Artaud, Meret Oppenheim, Asger Jorn, Yoko Ono, Tom Phillips and Martin Arnold have in common? Whereas a wealth of critics have diagnosed contemporary art’s preoccupations with madness, depression and self-abuse as well as its tendency to cultivate an (anti-)aesthetics of the negative, the excremental and the abject (say, from the Vienna Action Group to Serrano, McCarthy or Delvoye), much less attention has been paid to how modern and contemporary artists and public have thrived on the destruction, disfiguration and obliteration of work by the artists and/or by that of others. From Artaud’s «terminal» notebooks to the recent upsurge in «erasure poetics», the history of «undoing» art deserves to be recounted in a positive mode and rescued from popular narratives of the decline and death of the avant-garde.”

About Relations between Art and Science
Ryszard W. Kluszczynski

“The art@science phenomenon, which I have included in the title of this text, implies in its structure something more than just artistic and scientific factors operating together. The @ symbol linking both sides highlights that in the newest practices which combine art and science the digital and media technologies play a very important role. Needless to say, it derives from the enormous importance of these technologies in the contemporary world. We find them in various forms in all the artistic domains; also contemporary science widely uses them. The digital technologies literally join artistic and scientific practices together. In the described environment they represent the technical and engineering world. After all three areas of social practices are first put together, the phenomenon described here may fully emerge.”

Social Media As Art and vs Art
Stavroula Zoi

“WWW space has always been an attractive space for artists, providing a virgin area for discovery. Gradually it was filled with shops, newspapers, maps, advertisements and became everyone’s daily routine. Where does the artist stand in this situation? As visitors’ animator through the social web? In the compromise in order to be included to a new populous and commercial Internet? Or in the exploration of virgin areas on the edge of the WWW?”

Art & Science
Anne Brodie, Simon Park

“Experiments is the frst in a series of unique, exhibitions curated by Artaktwith GV Art. It brings together the work of five artists whose practice develops with close and productive collaborations with scientists. In a rare opportunity for professionals of each discipline to develop a relationship with each other, the artists and scientists explore the others productive processes, investigating the mythology of ‘neat laboratory worker’ versa ‘chaotic, creative artist.’”

Prefigurative Art
Chris Gray

“‘Art can, art must change the world, for that is its only justification.’ – Orlan. I agree completely with Orlan that art must be political. Today, one of the greatest political issues we face is the progressive cyborgization of humanity so art should be, andactually is, a major source of our insights about our cyborg society. In closely studying the work of Stelarc and Orlan, it is clear that not only is their art a very political reflection on cyborgization, but it goes much further. Their work, which is themselves, is a direct attempt to shape our cyborg future. It is prefigurative art.”.

Art (Australia)
Margaret Hutchison

“Artistic responses to Australia’s war effort were diverse and engaging. Soldiers sketching what they experienced of the 1915 Gallipoli campaign produced some of the earliest images of the conflict. During the war, the first official art scheme was established and employed Australian artists to capture a particularly Australian experience of the fighting. Unofficial responses, primarily created by women artists, offset the narrow official representation of the conflict, including the war experience behind the lines. However, it was during the interwar years that many of the most iconic images of Australia’s war experience were created.”

Pallava Art
Michael Lockwood

“‘Pallava Art’, by Michael Lockwood, A. Vishnu Bhat, Gift Siromoney, P. Dayanandan. Kings of the Pallava dynasty were the paramount rulers of south India, holding sway over the area of the present states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, from the fourth to the end of the ninth century, CE. In this book the term ‘Art’ is taken in its broadest sense to include, besides the usual topics of sculpture, painting, and architecture, such things as literature, music, epigraphy, and palæography.”

“Objective” Art
Jon Woodson

“A comparison of Savage’s sculpture with a concert harp shows that the kneeling figure (the foot pedal) is at the wrong end of the harp. In “objective” art mistakes are meaning ful, while in “subjective” art mistakes have nouseful status. The mistaken position of the kneeling figure at the front of Savage’s magical harpestablishes it as the most significant aspect of the esoteric symbolism of Savage’s sculpture. Savage’s sculpture implicates A. R. Orage’s esoteric intervention in history.”

Sustainable Art
Georgia Adamou

“Sustainable art is an expression, which recently has been raised as an art term. Artists must consider and work with the environment around, engaging the people, the place and the community as a whole. This essay is to investigate how sustainable art becomes the foundation and the main denominator of a community. Through which aspects can sustainable art create a platform between the artist, the community and the environment? Art can be the reflection of our responsibility towards the local environment, the community and to the global environment. Sustainable art act as a community catalyst which forms interactions, connecting people, promoting human inspiration, ideas, feelings and experiences.”

Art Watching
Brian Fay, Niamh Ann Kelly

“Art-Watching, like most collaborative projects, began as a series of conversations. These conversations revolved around the nature, purpose and pleasure of looking at and watching art. Discussions evolved to work, and work developed into the forth coming publication Art-Watching. The following pages are a foretaste to Art-Watching, a limited-edition art book that will consist of digital drawings and texts reflecting upon chosen paintings from the collection at the Dublin City Gallery The Hugh Lane. There are two main parts to this Circa supplement. Firstly we have included an essay, Watching Over Art – Thoughts on Art and Art Criticism, and a selection of digital drawings responding to specific works at the Hugh Lane Gallery that will appear in the Art-Watching book.”

Interpreting Art
Anda Elena Cretiu

“Art is (or should be) interpreted according to a number of principles, more or less clearly stated throughout the existence of what is generally called art criticism. The language (discourse) used to do that presents some particularities which may be inscribed within what a scholar named “a hermeneutic circle.” Although communication in the field of art may be mainly characterized as visual (since it is centered around image), it is nonetheless true that in this post-(post)modern era there must be some linguistic form of communicating both among art specialists, on the one hand, and among them and larger audiences/public, on the other. A number of genres have been devised for this purpose, with specific structures and specific discourse strategies. Probably the most important strategy refers to the linguistic (and extra linguistic) choices for interpreting art. Our concern is here with some aspects of the specific English language put to work for interpreting art and with how these aspects may be dealt with in classroom procedure.”

Dissolving the Boundaries: Postmodern Art and Art Therapy
Simone Alter Muri, Linda Klein

“This brief report discusses the relevance of postmodern art to contemporary art therapy practice. Postmodernism is defined by art that breaks or blurs the boundaries between product and process, individual and group creation, and artist and viewer. A discussion of contemporary artists who use a postmodern framework, including Anselm Kiefer, Jenny Holzer, Nakahashi Katsushige and others, is provided as an example for how post-modernism may be applied to art therapy. A postmodernist perspective informs a multifaceted therapeutic approach whichnegotiates the border between individual integrity and community values, blurs the distinction between home and studio, and validates all forms of image-creation with the overall purpose of healing and social empowerment.”

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